Saturday, February 5, 2011


Scalars and Vectors, unit vector, addition and subtraction of vectors (analytical
method), product of two vectors, vector analysis, Matrices. Mechanics of single particle
and a system of particles, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation. Angular
momentum, Conservation of angular momentum. Moment of inertia, radium of gyration.
Theorem of parallel and perpendicular axes. Centripetal force and centrifugal force.
Relation between G and g, variation of g, Gravitational potential intensity at a
point due to spherical and other symmetrical bodies, keplar’s laws of planetary motion.
Elastic deformations, Torsion of wire, Torsional Oscillation. Bending of uniform
beam, clamped at one end supported at both ends.
Surface tension and its molecular origin, surface energy. Excess pressure on a
curved liquid surface, shape of liquid drops, surface tension and evaporation.
Coefficient of viscosity. Viscous flow through a capillary tube. Poiseuille’s
formula. Stokes law, Reynold number.
1. Kinetic theory of Gases --- Basic assumptions of the theory, perfect gas equation.
Temperature; Degrees of freedom; classical law of distribution of energy; specific
heat of gases, Ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and at constant
volume. Absolute scale of temperature.
2. Deviation from perfect gas equation, vander Wall’s equation of State. Critical
3. Heat conduction in Solid, conductivity and diffusivity.
4. First Law of thermodynamics.
Second Law of thermodynamics, Reversible and irreversible processes.
Condition of reversibility. Carnot’s theorem. Kelvin temperature scale. Heat
Entropy concept. Entropy of an ideal gas, Entropy of a mixture of gases.
Entropy change in reversible and irreversible processes, principle of increase of
5. Throttling process, Joule Thomson effect, liquefaction of gases – critical
1. Simple harmonic Motion. Superposition of two harmonic oscillations with
constant phase, frequency and amplitude difference beat phenomenon, coupled
2. Damped harmonic oscillator, Q-factor, Forced vibration. Resonance, sharpness
of resonance. An harmonic oscillation.
3. Waves in continuous medium, Elastic waves in solids, liquids and gases, phase
and group velocity. Energy transport by a traveling wave. Energy flux in a
sound wave. Relative and absoluter intensity. Decibel and phone; standing
4. Transverse vibration of strings.
5. Doppler effect in sound, ultrasonics.
1. Short wave-length limit and geometrical optics, Fermat’s Principle and its
application to reflection and refraction at plane surfaces, combination of lenses:
equivalent lens. Thick lenses, Principal plane, Nodal points. Helmhotz-Lagrange
law for magnification.
2. Aberrations – spherical aberration, causes and remedy. Qualitative ideas of
astigmatism, distortion, chromatic aberration.
3. Ramsden and Huygens’s eye pieces (Ray diagram), Angular magnification.
Resolving power (no deduction).
4. Electromagnetic nature of light. Electromagnetic spectrum. Huygens’s principle.
5. Interference of light, Coherent and incoherent sources. Interference by division of
wave front and division of amplitude. Different types of interferometer (Principle
only) Resolving power, Michelson and Fabry Perot interferometer.
6. Fresnel diffraction. Division of wave front into half period zones, zone plate.
Plane diffraction grating. Resolving power, and dispersive power of a plane
diffraction granting (Deduction not necessary).
7. Polarization: Biaxial and uniaxial crystals, ordinary and extra-ordinary rays.
Half and quarter wave plates. Optical activity. Faraday effect, Kerr effect.
1. Magnetic potential and fields due to short magnet and magnetic shell.
2. Intensity of magnetization, moment of a magnet, magnetic saturation,
permeability and susceptibility, Dia, Para and Ferro magnetism, Hysterisis.
3. Couple on a magnet in a uniform field, work done in deflecting a magnet, magnetic
needle in tow cross magnetic fields.
4. Electric potential and electric intensity. Potential and intensity at a point due to
charge. Electrostatic induction, lines of forces, distribution of charge and potential
on a surface. Equipotential surface, total normal induction, Gauss theorem and
its applications. Coulomb’s theorem and its applications. Mechanical force on a
charged surface, energy per unit volume of a medium. Capacity of conductor and
factors controlling it, energy of a charge; Multiple expansion.
5. Electric polarization and dipole, electric displacement, dielectric constant,
Capacitance of common condenser (spherical, parallel plate and cylindrical).
6. Magnetic effect of electric current, Laplace’s equation, Biot savartlaw, Ampere’s
theorem. Magnetic field on the axis of a circular coil, solenoid, field due to a
current in an infinitely long wire; effect of magnetic field on current carrying
conductors; Moving coil Galvanometer, ammeter an voltmeter.
7. Kirchoff’s laws and its application, Seebeck, Peltier and Thomson effect, Thermo
electric power, Thermo couple.
8. Self and Mutual inductances, Varying currents, Growth and decay of currents in
L-R circuit. Charging and discharging of a condenser in C-R circuit. Time
constant and log decrement.
9. R.M.S. and mean values of alternating current. Reactance and impedance, phase
angle. Power in a.c. circuits. LR, CR and LCR circuits series and parallel resonant
circuits; Q-factor.
1. X-rays, production and nature, Compton effect, Mosley’s law, Rutherford model
Bohr model of atoms. Pauli Principle, photo electric effect.
2. Planck hypothesis, deBroglie hypothesis, Schroedinger equation, eigenvalues and
eigenstates, Orthonormalization, expectation value, commutation relation and
measurement, particle in a box. Linear harmonic oscillator. Potential well and
barrier problems.
3. Hydrogen atom, angular momentum, spherical harmonics, parity, atomic spectra,
time independent perturbation method. Two electron atom, spin-orbit interaction,
sodium D-lines, Zeeman and Stark effect.
4. Molecular spectra, vibration and rotation, Raman effect, selection rules,
5. Crystal structure, direct and reciprocal lattice, lattice vibration, s=acoustic and
optical modes, band theory, Kronig Penny model, Metal, semiconductor and
insulator, Hall effect.
6. Statistical Mechanics, ensemble, canonical and grand canonical ensemble, Bose
Einstein and Fermi Dirac statistics, Bose Einstein condensation.
7. Nuclear Physics, nuclear spin and nuclear magnetic moment, nuclear radium
mass and binding energy, stability condition, Nuclear disintegration, short range
interaction, Youkawa model, elementary particles, baryons and leptons.
8. Lasers, coherence properties, applications, He-Ne Laser, optical fiber.
9. Relativity, Lorentz transformation, four-vector, Energy-mass relations.
1. Diodes, p-n junction, zener diode, rectification.
2. Transistors: Bipolar junction transistor, hybrid parameters, CB, CC and CE
configurations, amplifiers.
3. Boolean algebra, Logic gates, AND, OR, NOT, NAND AND NOR gates.
4. Vacuum techniques, production and measurement
5. Particle accelerators and detectors.


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