Saturday, February 5, 2011


Section I: Aim, Scope and Branches of Biological Anthropology and its development in
Section II: Anatomy and Morphology.
1. Morphological features of man (Homo sapiens, sapiens)
2. Study of human skeleton: names and position of bones.
(a) Skull: study of different normas.
(b) Post cranial osteology: Vertebral column, Pectoral girdle,
Thorax, Pelvis, Upper and lower extremities.
3. Determination of sex from skull and pelvis.
4. Anatomical modifications in the skeleton as a consequence of evolution
Section III: Primates and Evolution of man
1. The Order Primates: General Characters (or evolutionary trends)
2. Classification of the Order : Simpson and Van Valen
3. Study of living Primate’s family with special reference to their
morphology, distribution and behaviour.
4. Comparative morphology and anatomy of living anthropoid apes:
Asian and African.
5. Study of fossil apes: Parapithecus, Dryopithecus, Sivapithecus
6. Study of proto-hominids: Australopithecus (afferensis, africanus,
robustus and boiseir)
7. Evolutionary theories: Lamarckism, Darwinism and modern
Palaeoanthropology and Prehistory
Group A: Palaeoanthropology and Prehistory
1. Basic concept and approaches of Palaeoanthropology with special
reference to India.
2. Environmental background of human evolution.
3. Biocultural process and mechanism of emergence and evolution of man
4. Main stages of human evolution and ancestral hominoid stalk
(Aegyptopithecus zedxis)
5. Origin of the genus Homo: Homo habilis, Homo erectus, (Java man,
Peking man, Olduvai man and Narmada man)
6. Emergence of species Homo sapiens.
(a) Homo sapiens Neanderthalensis Progressive and Conservative
(La chapelle, Tabun and Skhul finds)
(b) Homo sapiens sapiens Cro Magnon, Grinaldi and Chancclade,
Group B: Prehistory
1. Methodology in prehistory and its difference with Archeological
a) Exploration, b) Excavation, c) Collection d) Dating
e) Preservation f) Classification and Interpretation
2. Methods of dating : Absolute and Relative
a) Absolute methods- C-14, K-Ar, Fission Track,
thermoluminiscene, Amino Acid, Racemization,
Dendrochronology and Archaeomagnetism, Flurine Test.
b) Relative methods – Stratigraphy and Type Technology and
associate finds.
3. Sequence of Prehistoric cultures of the Old World
a) Palaeolithic / Early Stone. Age cultures of Europe, India and
Africa (East Africa –Olduval george)
b) Mesolithic cultures of Europe and India (Bagor, Langhnaj and
c) Neolithic General features and distributions (Europe and India).
Indian site study: Burzaliom Bellary.
d) Megalithic monuments of India.
4. Indus Valley Civilization with special reference to distribution: Town
planning, Trade, Pottery and Religion.
Group A : Social Anthropology
1. Aim, Scope and Branches of Social Anthropology, Relationship with
other disciplines of Social Science, Development of Social Anthropology
in India and abroad.
2. Brief Introduction to the concepts: Society, Group, Community, Unit,
Social Institutions, Social Organizations, Social System, Social
Structure, Social Process, Social Exchange.
3. Introduction to the Themes: Kinship components (Family, Lineage,
Clan, Phratry, Moity, Kindred). Kinship terminological systems,
Gender, Tribe, Caste, Class, Marriage, State, Religion, Property and
inheritance. Division of labour, village and Socialization.
4. Social Organization of Indian Tribes (Santal, Toda,, Garo, Toto,
Andaman Islanders) and Non-Indian Tribes (Arunta, Nuer and
Group B : Cultural Anthropology
1. Aim, Scope and Branches of Cultural Anthropology, Relationship with
other disciplines of Social Science, Development of Cultural
Anthropology in India and abroad.
2. Brief Introduction to the concepts: Culture, Technology, Trait,
Trait-Complex, Pattern, Culture area, Universals of Culture.
Diffusion. Symbol. World-view, Cognition, Integration, Phenomenon,
Acculturation, Enculturation.
3. Contemporary cultures:
a) Modes of subsistence: Gathering, Hunting, Fishing,
Pastoralism, Raising of Crops. (Shifting and Settled)
b) Forms of habitation and spatial organization, Clothings and
decoration, Food processing, technique of fire making and Tribal
c) Introduction to other Themes
Power and Politics: Myth, Magic and religion, Law, Order and
War, Art, Education, Music and Dance, Life cycle, Witchcraft.
Sorcery, Diuvination, Cults.
4. Study of Material Cultures of Indian tribes (Santal, Toda, Garo, Toto
and Andaman Islanders) and Non-Indian Tribes (Arunta, Nuer and
Group- A Human Genetics
1. Biological basis of inheritance
a) Structure and function of animal cell
b) Somatic and germ cell
c) Cell division: Significance of meiosis
d) Gametogenceis
e) Chromosomes and DNA-Human Karyotypes.
f) Some Genetic terms : Coden exzyna, intron genetic code
lethality and epistasis.
2. Mendel’s laws of inheritance
3. Criteria of inheritance of Mendelian traits in man Autosomal
dominant Autosomal recessive. Sex linked (X and Y linked); Sex
limited and Sex controlled \ Multiple allelism.
4. Brief outlines of methodology of Human Genetics : Pedigree method:
Twin method: Population genetical method(gene frequency; estimation
e.g. Benstein method for ABO blood groups)
5. Brief outline of Population Genetics Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium
Law; Mutation, Selection, Drift, Admixture.
Group-B: Population Biology
1. Definition, Concept and misconcept of Race (Historical development)
2. (A) Static approach – typological concept
(B) Dynamic approach Population genetical concept (race as a
Mendelian population)
(C) Ecological concept (geographical, local and micro races);
(D) Univariate and Multivariate approaches in assessing racial
affinities (Population affinities)
(E) Special categories of races / populations (e.g. Ainu
morphologically Special) basque genetically special.
3. Traits used for assessing population affinities.
4. Qualitative: ABO blood groups Skin colour, Hair form, Nose and
Dermatoglyphic and ridge count.
5. Racial groups of mankind. Typological (Haddon), Population genetical
(Boyd) and Ecological (Garn).
6. Racial classification of India (undivided) after Risley, Guha and Sarkar
7. Population variation in India: Regional Approach (Mahalanobis), Cline
8. Human adaptation to Environment: Hot adaptation Nilotic Negro,
Cold adaptation Eskimo.


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